For the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture
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The objective of the study was to compare the effect of transitioning from oral bisphosphonates to denosumab or zoledronic acid (ZOL) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover.
Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive condition that generally requires long-term management
Key Inclusion Criteria1
Postmenopausal women aged 55 or older who received oral bisphosphonate therapy for 2 years
T-score of -2.5 or less at the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck
1-year, multicenter, international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel-group trial
Subjects were randomized 1:1 to one of two treatment arms
Participants were required to take 1000 mg or greater elemental calcium and 800 IU or greater vitamin D daily
|Zoledronic acid (N = 320) n (%)||Prolia® (denosumab) (N = 320) n (%)|
|Any AE||199 (62.2)||199 (62.2)|
|Serious AEs||29 (9.1)||25 (7.8)|
|AEs leading to discontinuation of
|9 (2.8)||4 (1.3)|
|Fatal AEs||1 (0.3)||0 (0.0)|
|Selected AEs of interest|
|Atypical femoral fracture||1 (0.3)||2 (0.6)|
|AEs potentially related to hypersensitivity||6 (1.9)||12 (3.8)|
|Serious infection||6 (1.9)||5 (1.6)|
|Malignancy||8 (2.5)||5 (1.6)|
|Cardiac disorders||4 (1.3)||11 (3.4)|
|Vascular disorders||16 (5.0)||13 (4.1)|
|Eczema*||1 (0.3)||5 (1.6)|
|Musculoskeletal pain||63 (19.7)||43 (13.4)|
Contraindications: Prolia® is contraindicated in patients with hypocalcemia. Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be corrected prior to initiating Prolia®. Prolia® is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and may cause fetal harm. In women of reproductive potential, pregnancy testing should be performed prior to initiating treatment with Prolia®. Prolia® is contraindicated in patients with a history of systemic hypersensitivity to any component of the product. Reactions have included anaphylaxis, facial swelling and urticaria.
Same Active Ingredient: Prolia® contains the same active ingredient (denosumab) found in XGEVA®. Patients receiving Prolia® should not receive XGEVA®.
Hypersensitivity: Clinically significant hypersensitivity including anaphylaxis has been reported with Prolia®. Symptoms have included hypotension, dyspnea, throat tightness, facial and upper airway edema, pruritus, and urticaria. If an anaphylactic or other clinically significant allergic reaction occurs, initiate appropriate therapy and discontinue further use of Prolia®.
Hypocalcemia: Hypocalcemia may worsen with the use of Prolia®, especially in patients with severe renal impairment. In patients predisposed to hypocalcemia and disturbances of mineral metabolism, including treatment with other calcium-lowering drugs, clinical monitoring of calcium and mineral levels is highly recommended within 14 days of Prolia® injection. Concomitant use of calcimimetic drugs may worsen hypocalcemia risk and serum calcium should be closely monitored. Adequately supplement all patients with calcium and vitamin D.
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ): ONJ, which can occur spontaneously, is generally associated with tooth extraction and/or local infection with delayed healing, and has been reported in patients receiving Prolia®. An oral exam should be performed by the prescriber prior to initiation of Prolia®. A dental examination with appropriate preventive dentistry is recommended prior to treatment in patients with risk factors for ONJ such as invasive dental procedures, diagnosis of cancer, concomitant therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, corticosteroids, angiogenesis inhibitors), poor oral hygiene, and co-morbid disorders. Good oral hygiene practices should be maintained during treatment with Prolia®. The risk of ONJ may increase with duration of exposure to Prolia®.
For patients requiring invasive dental procedures, clinical judgment should guide the management plan of each patient. Patients who are suspected of having or who develop ONJ should receive care by a dentist or an oral surgeon. Extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition. Discontinuation of Prolia® should be considered based on individual benefit-risk assessment.
Atypical Femoral Fractures: Atypical low-energy, or low trauma fractures of the shaft have been reported in patients receiving Prolia®. Causality has not been established as these fractures also occur in osteoporotic patients who have not been treated with antiresorptive agents.
During Prolia® treatment, patients should be advised to report new or unusual thigh, hip, or groin pain. Any patient who presents with thigh or groin pain should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Interruption of Prolia® therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.
Multiple Vertebral Fractures (MVF) Following Discontinuation of Prolia® Treatment: Following discontinuation of Prolia® treatment, fracture risk increases, including the risk of multiple vertebral fractures. New vertebral fractures occurred as early as 7 months (on average 19 months) after the last dose of Prolia®. Prior vertebral fracture was a predictor of multiple vertebral fractures after Prolia® discontinuation. Evaluate an individual's benefit/risk before initiating treatment with Prolia®. If Prolia® treatment is discontinued, consider transitioning to an alternative antiresorptive therapy.
Serious Infections: In a clinical trial (N=7808) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, serious infections leading to hospitalization were reported more frequently in the Prolia® group than in the placebo group. Serious skin infections, as well as infections of the abdomen, urinary tract and ear were more frequent in patients treated with Prolia®.
Endocarditis was also reported more frequently in Prolia®-treated patients. The incidence of opportunistic infections and the overall incidence of infections were similar between the treatment groups. Advise patients to seek prompt medical attention if they develop signs or symptoms of severe infection, including cellulitis.
Patients on concomitant immunosuppressant agents or with impaired immune systems may be at increased risk for serious infections. In patients who develop serious infections while on Prolia®, prescribers should assess the need for continued Prolia® therapy.
Dermatologic Adverse Reactions: In the same clinical trial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, epidermal and dermal adverse events such as dermatitis, eczema and rashes occurred at a significantly higher rate with Prolia® compared to placebo. Most of these events were not specific to the injection site. Consider discontinuing Prolia® if severe symptoms develop.
Musculoskeletal Pain: Severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain has been reported in patients taking Prolia®. Consider discontinuing use if severe symptoms develop.
Suppression of Bone Turnover: In clinical trials in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, Prolia® resulted in significant suppression of bone remodeling as evidenced by markers of bone turnover and bone histomorphometry. The significance of these findings and the effect of long-term treatment are unknown. Monitor patients for these consequences, including ONJ, atypical fractures, and delayed fracture healing.
Adverse Reactions: The most common adverse reactions (>5% and more common than placebo) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis are back pain, pain in extremity, musculoskeletal pain, hypercholesterolemia, and cystitis. The most common adverse reactions (>5% and more common than placebo) in men with osteoporosis are back pain, arthralgia, and nasopharyngitis. Pancreatitis has been reported with Prolia®.
In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, the overall incidence of new malignancies was 4.3% in the placebo group and 4.8% in the Prolia® group. In men with osteoporosis, new malignancies were reported in no patients in the placebo group and 4 (3.3%) patients in the Prolia® group. A causal relationship to drug exposure has not been established.
The most common adverse reactions (>3% and more common than active-control group) in patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis are back pain, hypertension, bronchitis, and headache.
The most common (per patient incidence 10%) adverse reactions reported with Prolia® in patients with bone loss receiving ADT for prostate cancer or adjuvant AI therapy for breast cancer are arthralgia and back pain. Pain in extremity and musculoskeletal pain have also been reported in clinical trials. Additionally, in Prolia®-treated men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer receiving ADT, a greater incidence of cataracts was observed.
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody. As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity.
Reference: 1. Miller PD, Pannacciulli N, Brown JP, et al. Denosumab or zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis previously treated with oral bisphosphonates. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101:3163-3170.